Family XV. FRINGILLINAE. FINCHES.
GENUS X. PIPILO, Vieill. GROUND-FINCH
Bill short, stout, narrower than the head, conical, somewhat compressed, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly convex, the ridge narrow and distinct, the sides convex, the edges somewhat inflected, ascending for more than a third, then direct, with a slight festoon; notches very slight, tip declinate, narrow; lower mandible with the angle very short and broad, the dorsal line slightly convex, the sides rounded, the edges involute, the point acute. Nostrils basal, roundish, partially concealed by the feathers. Tarsus of moderate length, compressed, with seven scutella; toes rather large, scutellate above, the first stronger, the lateral nearly equal. Claws rather long, moderately arched, slender, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Small bristles at the base of the upper mandible. Plumage full, soft, and blended. Wings of ordinary length, much rounded, the fourth quill longest; tail long, rounded. Roof of upper mandible rather flat, with a narrow median and two broad lateral flattened ridges; tongue compressed, convex above, with a median groove, horny at the end, and pointed; oesophagus slightly dilated about the middle; stomach a strong muscular gizzard; intestine short; coeca small.