Family X. PARINAE. TITS.
Bill very short or of moderate length, straight, strong, compressed, rather sharp; both mandibles with the dorsal line sloping and slightly convex, the sides convex, the edges sharp; notches obsolete. Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head rather large, roundish; neck short; body short, and rather full. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tarsus rather short, compressed, with eight distinct scutella; toes large, the three anterior united as far as the second joint, the hind toe much stronger and flattened beneath; claws rather long, stout, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage very soft, blended, and full. Feathers at the base of the bill directed forwards. Wings of moderate length, much rounded, with the first quill very small, the fourth and fifth longest. Tail rather long, slender, of twelve narrow rounded feathers. Tongue emarginate and papillate at the base, abrupt at the tip, with four bristles. OEsophagus narrow, without dilatation; proventriculus oblong; stomach a rather strong oblong gizzard, with the muscles distinct, the epithelium dense, thin, longitudinally rugous; intestine short, of moderate width; coeca very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.